The global Petroleum Refining Industry never stops changing. As the economies of developing countries continue to strengthen and new sources of crude oil emerge, grassroot refinery projects are being continually planned, and upgrades, revamps and retrofits for existing refineries are increasingly frequent.
An oil refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into useful petroleum products.
Petroleum refining processes are the chemical engineering processes and other facilities used in petroleum refineries (also referred to as oil refineries) to transformcrude oil into useful products such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline or petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil and ful oils.
Petroleum refineries are very large industrial complexes that involve many different processing units and auxiliary facilities such as utility units and storage tanks. Each refinery has its own unique arrangement and combination of refining processes largely determined by the refinery location, desired products and economic considerations.
Some modern petroleum refineries process as much as 800,000 to 900,000 barrels (127,000 to 143,000 cubic meters) per day of crude oil.
Petroleum refineries convert crude oil and other liquids into many petroleum products that people use every day. Most refineries focus on producing transportation fuels. On average, U.S. refineries produce about 19 gallons of motor gasoline, 12 gallons of ultra-low sulfur distillate, most of which is sold as diesel fuel, and 4 gallons of jet fuel from a 42 gallon barrel of crude oil. More than a dozen other petroleum products are also produced in refineries. Petroleum refineries also produce liquids that are used by the petrochemical industry to make a variety of chemicals and plastics.